Technical Papers

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Paper Title & Author(s)
Comparative Performance of SmartValves with EHV Series Capacitor: Implications for Sub-Synchronous Resonance
Smart Wires partnered with EnerNex to conduct simulations using the IEEE Second Benchmark Model to study the implications of SSR. EnerNex found that active voltage injection from the SmartValve provides reactive compensation at line frequency like conventional series capacitors, but its actions do not extend to other frequencies.
RM Zavadil

Integration of Series FACTS Into Interconnect-scale Production Cost and Long-term Planning Tools
A commercial power system simulation and planning platform, called PLEXOS, has successfully been augmented to model series FACTS devices. The modeling capability has been demonstrated by planning a deployment of series FACTS devices in the Eastern Interconnection of the U.S., and the results indicate that the series FACTS can reduce the sum of production cost and capital cost for the study footprint.
F. Kreikebaum, A. Wang, S. Broad
SmartValve project report
EirGrid describe their operational experience with SmartValve technology. This report highlights the potential for leveraging SmartValve to optimize the Irish network, an assessment of the project and its key learnings.
FACTS and D-FACTS: The Operational Flexibility Demanded by the Transmission Expansion Planning Task with Increasing RES
FACTS and D-FACTS benefit transmission expansion planning by providing an operational flexibility to different dispatch scenarios. This results in increasing asset utilization, maximizing existing transmission capacity, avoiding transmission line construction, and saving in transmission investment.
R. C. Perez, G. C. Oliveira, M. V. Pereira, D. M. Falcão, F. Kreikebaum, S. M. Ramsay
A Case Study on the Use of D-FACTS Devices to Support Construction of New Transmission Facilities
Use of D-FACTS to control power flow over transmission lines to alleviate overloads when transmission facilities are removed to allow for construction of new transmission facilities is investigated. The economics of D-FACTS are evaluated by comparing with re-dispatching of available generating facilities in the system.
Chifong Thomas and Jordan Ham
Flexibility in Wind Power Interconnection Utilizing Scalable Power Flow Control
Adding power flow devices incrementally to constrained transmission lines provides benefits to both wind generation developers and transmission owners. Capital is only spent when it is necessary, generation developers can be charged incrementally, in-service dates can be accelerated and congestion can be relieved providing economic benefits.
Philip Jennings, Frank Kreikebaum, and Jordan Ham
A Flexible Future: Addressing Uncertainty in the Grid with Innovative Power Flow Control Technology
This e-book emphasizes Smart Wires’ core competency of providing flexible solutions to achieve a wide range of utility goals. Using technical studies and customer partnerships, Smart Wires introduces the major challenges facing utilities in this unprecedented era of system uncertainty and highlights its ability to help plan and mitigate utilities’ concerns with innovative strategies and technologies.
Deploying Power Flow Control to Improve the Flexibility of Utilities Subject to Rate Freezes and Other Regulatory Restrictions
Power flow control solutions can provide a shorter payback period for utilities. Such solutions can improve the flexibility of utilities subject to revenue decoupling, rate indexation, or rate freezes.
Stewart Ramsay, Julie Coulliard, Jerry Melcher, Chifong Thomas, and Frank Kreikebaum
Georgia Power Company (GPC) Project Report
Southern Company’s Georgia Power gained experience with the power flow control and real-time sensing capabilities of the PowerLine Guardian, a Distributed Series Reactor (DSR) device. This report describes the installation’s power system impacts, architecture and performance over a 16-month test period.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Project Report
Taking the first steps on the path to their grid of the future, Tennessee Valley Authority became the first utility to leverage Smart Wires as they began to think differently about how the transmission network is both operated and planned. This report summarizes the findings from TVA’s experience with Smart Wires technology including power system impacts, system availability and lessons learned.
Initial Field Trials of Distributed Series Reactors and Implications for Future Applications
DSRs have been successfully demonstrated as a low-cost method of controlling power flow in a meshed transmission grid. Pilot tests have confirmed ease of application and relocation, hardware reliability, and controllability.
I. Grant, J. Couillard, J. Schultz, F. Kreikebaum, S. Omran, R.Broadwater