Technical Papers

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Paper Title & Author(s)

Advancements in Distributed Power Flow Control
Written by contributors on the Impedance Controllers and Decentralized Congestion Management for Autonomous Load Flow Control (IDEAL) project, this paper asks seven research questions and proposes a concept for an agent-based power flow control system which includes hardware, controls, monitoring, communication and operational components. This proposed system demonstrates the distributed coordination of power flow control actions for alleviating subtransmission line overloads.

A Flexible Future: Addressing Uncertainty in the Grid with Innovative Power Flow Control Technology
This e-book emphasizes Smart Wires’ core competency of providing flexible solutions to achieve a wide range of utility goals. Using technical studies and customer partnerships, Smart Wires introduces the major challenges facing utilities in this unprecedented era of system uncertainty and highlights its ability to help plan and mitigate utilities’ concerns with innovative strategies and technologies.
Pacific Gas & Electric’s (PG&E) Electric Program Investment Charge (EPIC) Project 1.09C Report
PG&E describes their operational experience with the PowerLine Guardian, a Distributed Series Reactor (DSR) device. This report highlights key project learnings that have industry-wide value, validates the safe and effective functional and operational performance of the technology and provides guidance for other utilities seeking to install PowerLine Guardians.
Comparative Performance of SmartValves with EHV Series Capacitor: Implications for Sub-Synchronous Resonance
Smart Wires partnered with EnerNex to conduct simulations using the IEEE Second Benchmark Model to study the implications of SSR. EnerNex found that active voltage injection from the SmartValve provides reactive compensation at line frequency like conventional series capacitors, but its actions do not extend to other frequencies.
RM Zavadil

Flexibility in Wind Power Interconnection Utilizing Scalable Power Flow Control
Adding power flow devices incrementally to constrained transmission lines provides benefits to both wind generation developers and transmission owners. Capital is only spent when it is necessary, generation developers can be charged incrementally, in-service dates can be accelerated and congestion can be relieved providing economic benefits.
Philip Jennings, Frank Kreikebaum, and Jordan Ham
Integration of Series FACTS Into Interconnect-scale Production Cost and Long-term Planning Tools
A commercial power system simulation and planning platform, called PLEXOS, has successfully been augmented to model series FACTS devices. The modeling capability has been demonstrated by planning a deployment of series FACTS devices in the Eastern Interconnection of the U.S., and the results indicate that the series FACTS can reduce the sum of production cost and capital cost for the study footprint.
F. Kreikebaum, A. Wang, S. Broad
A Case Study on the Use of D-FACTS Devices to Support Construction of New Transmission Facilities
Use of D-FACTS to control power flow over transmission lines to alleviate overloads when transmission facilities are removed to allow for construction of new transmission facilities is investigated. The economics of D-FACTS are evaluated by comparing with re-dispatching of available generating facilities in the system.
Chifong Thomas and Jordan Ham
FACTS and D-FACTS: The Operational Flexibility Demanded by the Transmission Expansion Planning Task with Increasing RES
FACTS and D-FACTS benefit transmission expansion planning by providing an operational flexibility to different dispatch scenarios. This results in increasing asset utilization, maximizing existing transmission capacity, avoiding transmission line construction, and saving in transmission investment.
R. C. Perez, G. C. Oliveira, M. V. Pereira, D. M. Falcão, F. Kreikebaum, S. M. Ramsay
Deploying Power Flow Control to Improve the Flexibility of Utilities Subject to Rate Freezes and Other Regulatory Restrictions
Power flow control solutions can provide a shorter payback period for utilities. Such solutions can improve the flexibility of utilities subject to revenue decoupling, rate indexation, or rate freezes.
Stewart Ramsay, Julie Coulliard, Jerry Melcher, Chifong Thomas, and Frank Kreikebaum
Initial Field Trials of Distributed Series Reactors and Implications for Future Applications
DSRs have been successfully demonstrated as a low-cost method of controlling power flow in a meshed transmission grid. Pilot tests have confirmed ease of application and relocation, hardware reliability, and controllability.
I. Grant, J. Couillard, J. Schultz, F. Kreikebaum, S. Omran, R.Broadwater